Electronic Voting Machine(EVM)

EVM
Electronic voting (also known as e-voting) is voting that uses electronic means to either assist or take care of counting and counting.

Depending on the particular implementation, e-voting may use standalone electronic voting machines (also known as EVMs) or computers connected to the Internet. A range of Internet services can be included, ranging from basic broadcasting of tabulated results to online voting through common connective home appliances. The degree of automation may be limited to marking a paper ballot, or vote input, vote recording, data encryption and transmission to servers, and consolidation and tabulation of election results.

A qualified e-voting system must perform most of these functions, comply with a set of standards established by regulatory bodies, and successfully deal with robust requirements associated with security, accuracy, integrity, speed, confidentiality, auditing, access Should be able to Cost effectiveness, scalability and ecological sustainability.

Electronic voting technology may include perforated cards, optical scan voting systems, and special voting kiosks (including self-contained direct-recording electronic voting systems or DREs). This may also include the transmission of ballots and votes via telephone, personal computer network, or the Internet.
That electronic voting machine (EVM), the replacement of the ballot box, is the mainstay in the electoral process. In 1977, the Election Commission, Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Hyderabad was first tasked with designing and developing it. A proto-type was developed in 1979, demonstrated by the Election Commission on August 6, 1980, before representatives of political parties. Bharat Electronic Limited (BEL), Bangalore, co-opted with another public undertaking, was launched once after a broad agreement with ECIL to manufacture EVMs. EVMs were first used in the general elections in Kerala in May 1982; However, the absence of a specific law determining its use the Supreme Court barred that election. Subsequently, in 1989, the Parliament amended the Representation of People Act, 1951 to make a provision for the use of EVMs in the Elections Act (1953). A consensus on its introduction could only be reached in 1998 and was used in 25 assembly constituencies spread across three states of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Delhi. It was used in 45 parliamentary constituencies in 1999 and later in 45 legislative assembly elections in Haryana in February 2000. In the state assembly elections held in May 2001, EVMs were used in all assembly segments, in the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry and West Bengal. Since then, the Commission has used EVMs for each state assembly election. In 2004, in the general election to the Lok Sabha, EVM (over one million) was used in all 543 parliamentary constituencies in the country. The EVM consists of two units, the control unit (CU) and the balancing unit (BU), with a cable (5 m long) connecting the two units. A balloting unit caters to 16 candidates. A variety of versions are available for EVMs. From time to time, it has evolved and become more robust. In the case of pre-2006 (M1) and post-2006 EVMs (M2), 4 (four) balloting units can be cascaded together to accommodate a maximum of 64 candidates (including NOTA), which are used. Can be done with any control unit. In the case of upgraded EVMs (M3), 24 (Twenty Four) after 2006, 384 candidates can simultaneously cascade balancing units.
2 (including NOTA) that can be used with a control unit. It runs on a power pack (battery) which has 7.5 volts. In the case of M3 EVMs, power packs are inserted in the 5th, 9th, 13th, 17th and 21st calling units, if more than 4 BUs are connected to a control unit. With candidates' vote buttons on the right side of the BU, 1 to 16 points are embossed in Braille signage to guide the visually impaired.

 Flow Chart of EVM

FIG 1

FIG 2

LEGAL PROVISION FOR OF EVMS & VVPATS

Electronic voting machines were first used during the General Election of Kerala Legislative Assembly from Parur Assembly Constituency in May 1982 at 50 polling stations. Subsequently, these machines were used in ten other constituencies in 1982–83. After 1983, EVMs could not be used, as in an election appeal arising out of an election petition relating to the use of machines in elections in the Parur Assembly constituency, in Kerala, the Supreme Court ruled that the use of EVMs in elections There should be some special provision in the law. Subsequently, the Election Commission of India recommended the Government of India to amend the law to provide legal approval for the use of EVs. In December 1988, a new clause was inserted in the Representation of the People Act, 1951, in which the Election Commission of India was empowered to use electronic voting machines in elections, which is as follows: “61A. Voting machine in elections. - Notwithstanding anything or rules contained in this Act, the manner of voting and recording by voting machines may be determined in such a manner as may be adopted in such constituencies or constituencies which the Election Commission has It is possible. With respect to the circumstances of each case, specify. "Explanation. - For the purpose of this section," voting machine "means any machine or device operated electronically or otherwise used in reference to a ballot box to vote or record or The ballot in the Act or the rules made thereunder may be saved as otherwise provided, such as the use of such voting machine in any election, of such voting machine Should be included in the reference. The Supreme Court upheld the validity of the above provision in All India Anna Dravida da Munnetra Kazhagam v / s. Chief Election Commissioner and others [2002 (UJ) (1) 387] [Note: Any discrepancy Please refer to the Manual of Election Laws in the case of] Report of the Peep Act, 1951

Who invented EVM?

Alfred J. A voting machine designed by Gillespie and marketed by the Standard Voting Machine Company of Rochester, New York in the late 1890s. A mechanical lever voting machine is still in use in 2008 in Kingston, New York.

Who started EVM in India?

The use of EVMs and electronic voting was developed and tested in the 1990s by the state-owned Electronics Corporation of India and Bharat Electronics. He was introduced in the Indian elections between 1998 and 2001 in a phased manner.
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